Ethiopia on the move (May 2016)
Ethiopia is a poor country with pc income of $550 (2014, World Bank) but growing fast and aiming to attain lower middle income by 2025. Government is serious about building infrastructure and changing the national image. Below are some of the progress or achievements observed in 2015-2016.
Addis Ababa-Adama Expressway - 85km already operational
New Addis Ababa-Djibouti 656km railway under test-run and expected to be in operation in 2016
Addis Ababa's urban light rail (North-South Line & East-West Line), the first of its kind in Africa, started running in 2015
The above three transport projects were built by China. Ethiopia knows how to mobilize China's (and other countries') cooperation to its advantage.
Bole Lemi Industrial Zone - Ethiopia's first state-owned and managed IZ already full & operational
Grand Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile, 55% finished, will generate 6,000MW when completed, supplying power even to neighboring countries.
Strawberry production & export began by an Israeli firm in Mojo, south of Addis Ababa
JICA assisted the creation of "Ethiopian Highland Leather" brand for high-end sheepskin products
Rift Valley Wine, the first Ethiopian wine produced by a French winery, went on sale in 2015
Private Schools in Edo Period (May 2015)
During the Edo Period (1603-1867), Bakufu (central government) neither regulated nor promoted private education. As a result, many private schools emerged for both adults and children. Some schools were run by top scholars which made a mark on Japanese intellectual history and/or produced young political leaders (photos by Ohno).
Toju Shoin (Takashima, 1639?, teacher: Nakae Toju) taught how people should live, behave & interact, and produced many followers.
Kangien (Hita, 1817, founder: Hirose Tanso) taught Confucianism under strict discipline & grading, and attracted many students from all over Japan.
Teki Juku (Osaka, 1838, teacher: Ogata Koin) taught Dutch language & western medicine. Fukuzawa Yukichi, founder of Keio University, studied here.
Shokason Juku (Hagi, 1855, teacher: Yoshida Shoin) was a discussion forum among enthusiastic & politically active students. It existed only for 2 years but produced 2 prime ministers.
Industrial policy & middle income traps (Jun. 2014)
The age of PRSP and aid harmonization seems over. Even MDGs are less talked about. WB, WTO, UN Group and regional organizations are keen on debating industrial policy and middle income traps for receiving attention and budget. This shift was partly due to the rise of East Asian donors with more real-sector oriented agenda.
Expert meeting on middle income countries sponsored by UNDP (Seoul)
Communist Party Economic Committee meeting on Vietnam's middle income trap problem (Hanoi)
Definition of a middle income trap?
- Growth slows down at middle income and does not achieve
high income (too general)
- If a country stays in middle income for 28 (or 50) years, it is considered trapped (too technical & backward looking)
- It is a situation where a country is stuck at an income level associated with given resources and advantages, and cannot rise higher because value is not created by domestic citizens or firms - just luck and no effort (my definition)
WTO's expert meeting on industrial policy and the trade system (Beijing)
Joe Stiglitz, Justin Lin & Ha-joon Chang are economists criticizing IMF/WB/WTO and advocating active industrial policy (Johannesburg)
Ethiopia meets Malaysia (Jun. 2013)
JICA & GRIPS invited Ethiopian industrial state ministers and FDI agency officials to visit Malaysia to learn from their policy making - total of 11 people from Ethiopia for two weeks.
Ethiopians are serious people - every morning they have a pre-meeting at the hotel lobby/SME Corp. Malaysia - key officials are ladies
At the Ministry of International Trade & Industry/meeting with MITI minister
Malaysian MITI complex/Mr. J.Jegathesan - former MIDA vice director and energetic advisor to Zambia & other governments
Manufacturing in Ethiopia (Jun.2013)
Ethiopia is poor but government is determined to learn from East Asia and industrialize. Recently, large-scale labor-intensive projects are beginning to arrive. Since 2008, GRIPS Dev. Forum & JICA have conducted policy dialogue with Ethiopia.
Ayka is a huge integrated textile factory from Turkey with brand-new equipment and over 5,000 workers, producing middle-range knit products for EU & US markets (through a German distributor)./The Eastern Industry Zone, south of Addis Ababa, was built by a private Chinese company, waiting for more investors.
JICA-assisted kaizen activities at a local tire manufacturer.
Ms. Helen Hai is CEO at Huajian Addis, a Chinese shoe maker. The firm hires 1,750 workers, exports Western brand shoes (OEM), and is expanding capacity.
Large-scale cut-rose cultivation for export./Leather product workshop (bags, purses, wallets).
Kaizen in India (Mar.2013)
Kaizen means improvement in Japanese. It is quality and productivity philosophy & tools created in the late 1950s by modifying US production management. Its features waste elimination, organized workplace, small and continuous improvements and teamwork. Kaizen is practiced and taught globally, often with JICA assistance.
Kaizen in India is purely private, introduced by Maruti Suzuki (Japanese JV) and its suppliers to improve car quality. Indians can now practice kaizen perfectly without any help from Japanese.
Ajisai and asagao (July 2012)
In the rainy season (June-July), ajisai (hydrangea) bloom in many places in blue, purple, pink, white, etc. With each rain, the color of ajisai is said to deepen.
Asagao (morning glory) is another popular summer flower in different colors grown in pots since the Edo period.